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We are a touroperator travel agency based in Brasov-Romania, functioning since 2005 march. We are specialized in incoming and in multi country tours around Romania. WWe can customize your tours or offer you one of our tours which already are on our web site : www.visittransilvania.ro

luni, 17 noiembrie 2014

TRANSYLVANIA A MINI EUROPE - part 2

2. The most important european religions are here: greek-orthodox , roman-catholic and protestant

I own you the second part of this documentary. I will talk about the second reason which makes Transylvania a mini Europe : here are the most important religions of Europe: greek - orthodox, roman - catholic, protestant.

After the conquest of Transylvania by the hungarian kingdom we have here greek orthodox ( romanians from Transylvania and outside of the Carpathians ) and catholics ( the germans and the hungarians )
Greek - Orthodox - romanians. 
We became christians since Andrew, the apostol of Christ, christianized our ancestors dacian-romans. This christianization was pretty easy to be done, because our ancestors, the dacians, had a religion very close to christianism. Thei had only a major teacher which use to talk them about the single, major God, the same teacher disappear for 3 years in his chamber under the ground to reappear for the joy of the dacians which thought him dead, he give them a previous 10 commandments in their case having 10 times "NO". All those things made easier the acceptance of christianity by our ancestors. So when we became a nation, we was already christians beeing in fact, the single nation in the world which was christian before to be a nation.
Then, because of the approach of the Byzantin Empire, we embrace the greek orthodox religion becaming the single latin nation which is orthodox, as the polish are the single catholic nation which have slavic origins.
We receive the orthodoxism from the bulgarian monks and because of this the words which are used during the religious service have slavic roots and the ones connected with the faith, like cruce - cross, inger- angel, basilica - biserica' dominus - domnul Dumnezeu - God aso are coming from latin.
Also, because the official language of the orthodox religion was "slavona" a slavic language, we used the cirilic alphabet since 1862 when it was changed to the latin by a reforme of Alexandru Ioan Cuza.

After the invasion of Transylvania by the hungarian catholic and apostolic kingdom, romanians from here continue to keep their religion despite all the pressures to change it. Not even the reform of Martin Luther does'n't had an impact above us.
During the contrareform starting with the year 1699 a part of the romanians from Transylvania, accept to be unite with the catholic church in exchange of receiving social ' military and politic right which was take it from them since 1347. Their greek orthodox religion it was'n't change to much.
After couple of years seeing that the catholic church do not respect all the promises like 75% from the romanians united with the catholic church decided to go back to the oryhodox church. The ones which remained greek-catholics as it was called this new church was received at the end more rights and their children was able to study Law and History and Philosophy and coming back home, to fight more efficiently for the right of the all romanians from Transylvania, orthodox or not.
Today is the same situation as in the past romanian - orthodox having a large majority in Transylvania.

THE CATHOLICS - hungarians and germans

Before the year 1000 around 996, a hungarian prince, Vayk, having noble transylvanian origins, accepted the catholic baptism together with all his nation, becaming the king Stephen I-st, known today as King Stephen the I-st and Saint of Hungary. It was the moment when the hungarians became catholics and when thei will enter in Transylvania, will became the second religion here, the catholics. The headquarter of the catholic church was in Alba Iulia wherr, the cathedral from here, and the bishopric was leading the destiny of the catholics here. Also this bishopric from Alba Iulia was ratified all the documents of the hungarian kings when they making donation to the romanian nobiles or hungarian nobiles.
Today, the catholic cathedral from Alba Iulia called in hungarian Gyulafehervar, it is a touristic destination in Transylvania maybe because here is barried one of most proeminents leaders of the hungarians, an important fighter against the ottomans and the father of one of the most importants hungarian kings, king Matthias and I speak about Iancu de Hunedoara or as it is called in Hungary, Hunyady Janos.
Around his and his son Matthias, origins was debates because we, the romanians always said that he and his son are romanians. He, Iancu de Hunedoara born from romanian parents, his son Mathias having a hungarian mother so only half romanian.
Is not the place and moment to explain you why this debate, but if you want, you can write me at nicumarius.marin@gmail.com to tell you more.
Religiously speaking, romanians and hungarians live in complete tollerance then and today. We don't had religious wars in Transylvania and will not have.
Another ethnic group part from the catholic church from Transylvania was the germans. They also leave in peace with us and the hungarians, but one of them was the one responsable for the birth of the third religion in Transylvania: the protestants.

The protestants - germans and hungarians.
 In 1535, a german humanist from Brasov, Johannes Honterus, took contact with the ideas of Martin Luther and because the social relations in between the catholic church and the german population and hungarian too, it was pretty tense the ideas of reform find a good earth to grow and blossom here. In this way, in a very short time the majority of the german and hungarian population switch to protestant religion letting the catholic church without believers. 
Anyway, not all the germans and Hungarians switch to the new religion, some families remaining catholics. For them, it was arranged into one of the towers of the fortified church, a catholic chapel to let them practice their religion.
I think this it was a good exemple of religious tolerance.
Only the romanians continue to remain greek orthodox. In this way appeared the third major religion of Europe here, the protestants. Today, the majority of the gothic or fortified churches from Transylvania are evangelic or lutherane.
When you`ll enter into a fortified churches from Transylvania you`ll discover something unique in Europe, a kind of fortification invented by the defence necessity of the community, mixed with a church. Usually the church, built into the gothic style, have elements from the Burgundy Gothic , brought here by the Cistercian monks at the beginning of 1200. Elements of decoration like four or multiple leafs openings placed under roof, or the double windows, are everywhere.
The church nave have benches organized in two large groups: on the southern side boys and mans, on the northern side ladies and girls.
At the entransce of the childrens into the religious community the boys was staying on the southern lateral side along the wall in the last benches. They will advance to the front according with their age, so when they was ready to be married they was staying in the first benches along the southern wall of the church. The same rule was settled for the girls but on the northern side.
After marriage, boys and girls, now mans and womans, was moved on the central benches, each one keeping his side ( to the south mans to the north womans ). Also they was advancing with the age, so in the first benches from the centre was staying the oldest members of the community.
As a conclusion, here you can see in many places, like for exemple in to the downtown of my city, Brasov, a catholic church, 300 meters away an orthodox one and a little bit further an evangelic gothic Cathedral.
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miercuri, 1 octombrie 2014

TRANSYLVANIA - A MINI EUROPE - part 1

Transylvania is a mini Europe. Coming in this region of Romania called Transylvania, which is the womb of our nation and our language, is like you came to visit Europe. To be short I will explain you why Transylvania is a mini Europe.
                 1. All the main language families of Europe are here : latins, germans, hungarians.
                 2. All the main religions of Europe are here : orthodox , catholic, protestant
                 3. All the main architectural styles of Europe  are here : romanic, gothic, baroque , art nouveau.

Now, let me explain you.

1. ALL THE MAIN LANGUAGE FAMILIES OF EUROPE ARE HERE; LATINS, GERMANS HUNGARIANS.

At the begining of time, this land it was covered by forests and hills and at the edge surendered by mountains from the Carpathian chain. The time passing by and the first indo-european nations came here more then 40.000 years ago. In the first age of iron , like 3000 BC in this area was raised a mighty civilization : The Thracians. They was spread from Romania to the borders of Greece and one of the tribes was lived on the teritory of Romania so, also, in Transylvania.
Because this tribe was called Daci ( dacians ) their country ( Romania from today ) was called Dacia. They developed here a high civilization with advanced knowledges in mathematics, astronomy, medicine, arquitecture aso. The western half of their country ( actual Romania ) was  conquered by the romans after two wars ( 101-102 ; 105-106 AC ) which brought roman colonists which receive land here, was mixed up with the dacians and between the 4-6 century appeared a new nation and a new language : romanians and the romanian language which, as you understand already, is a latin language because after 165 years of roman dominance here' the dacians was latinized by the romans. That was very easy because the fact that the vulgar latin, the basic latin spoked by the roman soldiers and the roman colonists  and the language of the dacians it was very similar.

1) So  romanians, are the oldest and the first owners of Transylvania. Their language is latin as are spanish, french, italian, 

The dacian romans as we called them continue to live here after the retreat of the roman army from Dacia on the south of the Danube starting with the year 271 AC when starts the period of migrations of the nations from the east to Occident to conquer the Roman Empire. I am talking here about Orsthrogots, Visighots, Pecenegs, Cumans, Slavs, Huns, Magyars aso. Because the dacian romans amd later romanians, was a nation of agricultors and shapards, they can't resist in fron of those, migrators, called incorrect "barbarians". Not right barbarians because for the romans, barbarian was called any people which was'n't part from the roman culture, but because those migrators was warriors and brutals and cruels the word barbarian became similar with a violent behaviour.
Because of this behaviour the romanians, formed as nation and language between the 3-5 century after Christ, was'n't capable to create and preserve an archive with written documents because was forced to refugee into the deep forest from the top of the mountains and in those conditions was basically imposible to create and maintain a written archive even that the first writing in the world was dicovered in Transylvania on the valley of the river Mures at the Tartaria village and have 3000 years old before the one from Sumer which everybody knows it is the first written in the world. Our is older with 3000 years because the population from here migrated to Sumer and is not only a supposition but a cerain fact based on the idea that the legends of the sumerians are talking about mountains and animals typpical for our area and their calendar it was built on the latitude and longitude from here.
Coming back from our lesson, the only proofs that the romanians lived here ,in Transylvania, after the retreat of the roman army and administration only, are the arheological discoveries.
When around the year 994 - 995 the principe of the hungarians Vayk is baptised in the catholic religion he bacame Stephen, the first king of the hungarians. He was the nephew of a transylvanian nobile. Then, between the year 990 and 1210 the hungarians started to talk about and then to conquer what they was called in latin "nostra terra trans silva" the country beyond the forest which later will became Transylvania.

2) The second linguistic group belongs to the fino-ugric languages like finish and hungarian so I speak here about the Hungarians.
The hungarians came here, in Transylvania, as invaders.  I know it sounds a little bit tough but this is the truth and is nothing bad in this. Facts like this was happened everywhere on the european continent.

Their kingdom foundated in the year 1000 because of the baptism of the leader of the hungarian tribes in the catholicism as Stephen ( king Stephen I-st ) together with all hungarians, became quick the most important kingdom in the region. Romanians living in Transylvania, were organised in some counties having politic and military leaders but not as the hungarians which better trained and armed will conquer Transylvania little by little in the next 200 years. After the conquest, the hungarian king,  to control a teritory where the romanians were and still are, a majority of population, was forced to brought on the eastern side of this region , on the border of the Oriental Carpathians , a nation related with them, szekelys. Those ones are even today, on the same teritory as almost 800 years ago. Also, close to them many hungarians came in this land to establish new homes under the protection of their king. They was settled on the eastern side of Transylvania where they are still leaving today. The first it was'n't very easy because they had the right from their king, to take from the romanians all the properties they need to built their own settlements, which creates many fights with the owners of the land, romanians. At the end, because of a a rebelion in 1437 of the romanians, they are losing all their politic , social and , military rights becoming tolerated in their own country.
 Then, because the hungarian king needs good craftmens, artesans and merchandisers, traders for commerce and to rise the economy, he invite here people from Flandres and south of Germany. Those was coming having the same right to take from the romanians any piece of land, any forest, any mountain they want to settle their settlements.

3) In this way we have settled here the third linguistic group, the germans.  If the hugarians was settled on the eastern side of Transylvania, the germans will settle themselves in the south east corner of the region, founding important cities as Brasov, Sighisoara and Sibiu. Those cities are disposed into a real "gold triangle" because any of them was an important economical and cultural centre of Transylvania and today are the most important cities in Transylvanian tourism.
The germans was settled and was started to built their houses. Coming to Transylvania and passing by their villages (even their descendents was going back to Germany in the '90-s in mass proportion) you'll see that the houses have high gates to not see inside. Inside is a courtyard which is separated by the vegetables garden by a transversal barn where they use to keep the cown, the sheeps, the chickens, the tools for working in the garden and the clothes for garden to change when they was going there and changing back when they was coming back to the house.
Because the agricol land belonging to the community being only administrated in small peaces of land by eatch family for his own needs, the planting and harvesting was done in the same time by the members of the community. In the same time they was married after the agrement of the council of the old ones and to visit a neighbour they have to announce first. I supposed by my own experience, because I am born and raised in Transylvania, that this is because of the relief which here is very hilly, downy, I mean full of hills. This it means that is closed by hills and the influence above the human psichyc is to became closed, serious and not very open, like for exemple are the people living near the sea or on the plain field. I said that because I spent all my summer vacations on my grandparents from my father side on the shore of the Danube and there, for exemple a good neighbour can enter to your yard just like that, announcing you that he will borrow your barrow and live. Something like this is not possible in Transylvania not evem among romanians. Is true that we, the romanians living in Transylvania are latins like our brothers beyond the Carpathians, but we are influenced in our mentality by the germans and because of this we are more like them in work, seriousity, punctuality, respect than the rest of the romanians, and this is possible after 900 years of living together with them here.
The germans was the engine of the economy and trade in Transylvania, and when they decided to left Romania and Transylvania in the '90-s we regret this very much.
As you can see, in this way, we still have today, those large groups of languages in here and next time I will tell you how was born here those 3 important christian religions : orthodox, catholic and protestant.