Transylvania is a mini Europe. Coming in this region of Romania called Transylvania, which is the womb of our nation and our language, is like you came to visit Europe. To be short I will explain you why Transylvania is a mini Europe.
1. All the main language families of Europe are here : latins, germans, hungarians.
2. All the main religions of Europe are here : orthodox , catholic, protestant
3. All the main architectural styles of Europe are here : romanic, gothic, baroque , art nouveau.
Now, let me explain you.
1. ALL THE MAIN LANGUAGE FAMILIES OF EUROPE ARE HERE; LATINS, GERMANS HUNGARIANS.
At the begining of time, this land it was covered by forests and hills and at the edge surendered by mountains from the Carpathian chain. The time passing by and the first indo-european nations came here more then 40.000 years ago. In the first age of iron , like 3000 BC in this area was raised a mighty civilization : The Thracians. They was spread from Romania to the borders of Greece and one of the tribes was lived on the teritory of Romania so, also, in Transylvania.
Because this tribe was called Daci ( dacians ) their country ( Romania from today ) was called Dacia. They developed here a high civilization with advanced knowledges in mathematics, astronomy, medicine, arquitecture aso. The western half of their country ( actual Romania ) was conquered by the romans after two wars ( 101-102 ; 105-106 AC ) which brought roman colonists which receive land here, was mixed up with the dacians and between the 4-6 century appeared a new nation and a new language : romanians and the romanian language which, as you understand already, is a latin language because after 165 years of roman dominance here' the dacians was latinized by the romans. That was very easy because the fact that the vulgar latin, the basic latin spoked by the roman soldiers and the roman colonists and the language of the dacians it was very similar.
1) So romanians, are the oldest and the first owners of Transylvania. Their language is latin as are spanish, french, italian,
The dacian romans as we called them continue to live here after the retreat of the roman army from Dacia on the south of the Danube starting with the year 271 AC when starts the period of migrations of the nations from the east to Occident to conquer the Roman Empire. I am talking here about Orsthrogots, Visighots, Pecenegs, Cumans, Slavs, Huns, Magyars aso. Because the dacian romans amd later romanians, was a nation of agricultors and shapards, they can't resist in fron of those, migrators, called incorrect "barbarians". Not right barbarians because for the romans, barbarian was called any people which was'n't part from the roman culture, but because those migrators was warriors and brutals and cruels the word barbarian became similar with a violent behaviour.
Because of this behaviour the romanians, formed as nation and language between the 3-5 century after Christ, was'n't capable to create and preserve an archive with written documents because was forced to refugee into the deep forest from the top of the mountains and in those conditions was basically imposible to create and maintain a written archive even that the first writing in the world was dicovered in Transylvania on the valley of the river Mures at the Tartaria village and have 3000 years old before the one from Sumer which everybody knows it is the first written in the world. Our is older with 3000 years because the population from here migrated to Sumer and is not only a supposition but a cerain fact based on the idea that the legends of the sumerians are talking about mountains and animals typpical for our area and their calendar it was built on the latitude and longitude from here.
Coming back from our lesson, the only proofs that the romanians lived here ,in Transylvania, after the retreat of the roman army and administration only, are the arheological discoveries.
When around the year 994 - 995 the principe of the hungarians Vayk is baptised in the catholic religion he bacame Stephen, the first king of the hungarians. He was the nephew of a transylvanian nobile. Then, between the year 990 and 1210 the hungarians started to talk about and then to conquer what they was called in latin "nostra terra trans silva" the country beyond the forest which later will became Transylvania.
2) The second linguistic group belongs to the fino-ugric languages like finish and hungarian so I speak here about the Hungarians.
The hungarians came here, in Transylvania, as invaders. I know it sounds a little bit tough but this is the truth and is nothing bad in this. Facts like this was happened everywhere on the european continent.
Their kingdom foundated in the year 1000 because of the baptism of the leader of the hungarian tribes in the catholicism as Stephen ( king Stephen I-st ) together with all hungarians, became quick the most important kingdom in the region. Romanians living in Transylvania, were organised in some counties having politic and military leaders but not as the hungarians which better trained and armed will conquer Transylvania little by little in the next 200 years. After the conquest, the hungarian king, to control a teritory where the romanians were and still are, a majority of population, was forced to brought on the eastern side of this region , on the border of the Oriental Carpathians , a nation related with them, szekelys. Those ones are even today, on the same teritory as almost 800 years ago. Also, close to them many hungarians came in this land to establish new homes under the protection of their king. They was settled on the eastern side of Transylvania where they are still leaving today. The first it was'n't very easy because they had the right from their king, to take from the romanians all the properties they need to built their own settlements, which creates many fights with the owners of the land, romanians. At the end, because of a a rebelion in 1437 of the romanians, they are losing all their politic , social and , military rights becoming tolerated in their own country.
Then, because the hungarian king needs good craftmens, artesans and merchandisers, traders for commerce and to rise the economy, he invite here people from Flandres and south of Germany. Those was coming having the same right to take from the romanians any piece of land, any forest, any mountain they want to settle their settlements.
3) In this way we have settled here the third linguistic group, the germans. If the hugarians was settled on the eastern side of Transylvania, the germans will settle themselves in the south east corner of the region, founding important cities as Brasov, Sighisoara and Sibiu. Those cities are disposed into a real "gold triangle" because any of them was an important economical and cultural centre of Transylvania and today are the most important cities in Transylvanian tourism.
The germans was settled and was started to built their houses. Coming to Transylvania and passing by their villages (even their descendents was going back to Germany in the '90-s in mass proportion) you'll see that the houses have high gates to not see inside. Inside is a courtyard which is separated by the vegetables garden by a transversal barn where they use to keep the cown, the sheeps, the chickens, the tools for working in the garden and the clothes for garden to change when they was going there and changing back when they was coming back to the house.
Because the agricol land belonging to the community being only administrated in small peaces of land by eatch family for his own needs, the planting and harvesting was done in the same time by the members of the community. In the same time they was married after the agrement of the council of the old ones and to visit a neighbour they have to announce first. I supposed by my own experience, because I am born and raised in Transylvania, that this is because of the relief which here is very hilly, downy, I mean full of hills. This it means that is closed by hills and the influence above the human psichyc is to became closed, serious and not very open, like for exemple are the people living near the sea or on the plain field. I said that because I spent all my summer vacations on my grandparents from my father side on the shore of the Danube and there, for exemple a good neighbour can enter to your yard just like that, announcing you that he will borrow your barrow and live. Something like this is not possible in Transylvania not evem among romanians. Is true that we, the romanians living in Transylvania are latins like our brothers beyond the Carpathians, but we are influenced in our mentality by the germans and because of this we are more like them in work, seriousity, punctuality, respect than the rest of the romanians, and this is possible after 900 years of living together with them here.
The germans was the engine of the economy and trade in Transylvania, and when they decided to left Romania and Transylvania in the '90-s we regret this very much.
As you can see, in this way, we still have today, those large groups of languages in here and next time I will tell you how was born here those 3 important christian religions : orthodox, catholic and protestant.
- We are a touroperator travel agency based in Brasov-Romania, functioning since 2005 march. We are specialized in incoming and in multi country tours around Romania. WWe can customize your tours or offer you one of our tours which already are on our web site : www.visittransilvania.ro