I own you the second part of this documentary. I will talk about the second reason which makes Transylvania a mini Europe : here are the most important religions of Europe: greek - orthodox, roman - catholic, protestant.
After the conquest of Transylvania by the hungarian kingdom we have here greek orthodox ( romanians from Transylvania and outside of the Carpathians ) and catholics ( the germans and the hungarians )
Greek - Orthodox - romanians.
We became christians since Andrew, the apostol of Christ, christianized our ancestors dacian-romans. This christianization was pretty easy to be done, because our ancestors, the dacians, had a religion very close to christianism. Thei had only a major teacher which use to talk them about the single, major God, the same teacher disappear for 3 years in his chamber under the ground to reappear for the joy of the dacians which thought him dead, he give them a previous 10 commandments in their case having 10 times "NO". All those things made easier the acceptance of christianity by our ancestors. So when we became a nation, we was already christians beeing in fact, the single nation in the world which was christian before to be a nation.
Then, because of the approach of the Byzantin Empire, we embrace the greek orthodox religion becaming the single latin nation which is orthodox, as the polish are the single catholic nation which have slavic origins.
We receive the orthodoxism from the bulgarian monks and because of this the words which are used during the religious service have slavic roots and the ones connected with the faith, like cruce - cross, inger- angel, basilica - biserica' dominus - domnul Dumnezeu - God aso are coming from latin.
Also, because the official language of the orthodox religion was "slavona" a slavic language, we used the cirilic alphabet since 1862 when it was changed to the latin by a reforme of Alexandru Ioan Cuza.
After the invasion of Transylvania by the hungarian catholic and apostolic kingdom, romanians from here continue to keep their religion despite all the pressures to change it. Not even the reform of Martin Luther does'n't had an impact above us.
During the contrareform starting with the year 1699 a part of the romanians from Transylvania, accept to be unite with the catholic church in exchange of receiving social ' military and politic right which was take it from them since 1347. Their greek orthodox religion it was'n't change to much.
After couple of years seeing that the catholic church do not respect all the promises like 75% from the romanians united with the catholic church decided to go back to the oryhodox church. The ones which remained greek-catholics as it was called this new church was received at the end more rights and their children was able to study Law and History and Philosophy and coming back home, to fight more efficiently for the right of the all romanians from Transylvania, orthodox or not.
Today is the same situation as in the past romanian - orthodox having a large majority in Transylvania.
THE CATHOLICS - hungarians and germans
Before the year 1000 around 996, a hungarian prince, Vayk, having noble transylvanian origins, accepted the catholic baptism together with all his nation, becaming the king Stephen I-st, known today as King Stephen the I-st and Saint of Hungary. It was the moment when the hungarians became catholics and when thei will enter in Transylvania, will became the second religion here, the catholics. The headquarter of the catholic church was in Alba Iulia wherr, the cathedral from here, and the bishopric was leading the destiny of the catholics here. Also this bishopric from Alba Iulia was ratified all the documents of the hungarian kings when they making donation to the romanian nobiles or hungarian nobiles.
Today, the catholic cathedral from Alba Iulia called in hungarian Gyulafehervar, it is a touristic destination in Transylvania maybe because here is barried one of most proeminents leaders of the hungarians, an important fighter against the ottomans and the father of one of the most importants hungarian kings, king Matthias and I speak about Iancu de Hunedoara or as it is called in Hungary, Hunyady Janos.
Around his and his son Matthias, origins was debates because we, the romanians always said that he and his son are romanians. He, Iancu de Hunedoara born from romanian parents, his son Mathias having a hungarian mother so only half romanian.
Is not the place and moment to explain you why this debate, but if you want, you can write me at firstname.lastname@example.org to tell you more.
Religiously speaking, romanians and hungarians live in complete tollerance then and today. We don't had religious wars in Transylvania and will not have.
Another ethnic group part from the catholic church from Transylvania was the germans. They also leave in peace with us and the hungarians, but one of them was the one responsable for the birth of the third religion in Transylvania: the protestants.
The protestants - germans and hungarians.
In 1535, a german humanist from Brasov, Johannes Honterus, took contact with the ideas of Martin Luther and because the social relations in between the catholic church and the german population and hungarian too, it was pretty tense the ideas of reform find a good earth to grow and blossom here. In this way, in a very short time the majority of the german and hungarian population switch to protestant religion letting the catholic church without believers.
Anyway, not all the germans and Hungarians switch to the new religion, some families remaining catholics. For them, it was arranged into one of the towers of the fortified church, a catholic chapel to let them practice their religion.
I think this it was a good exemple of religious tolerance.
Only the romanians continue to remain greek orthodox. In this way appeared the third major religion of Europe here, the protestants. Today, the majority of the gothic or fortified churches from Transylvania are evangelic or lutherane.
When you`ll enter into a fortified churches from Transylvania you`ll discover something unique in Europe, a kind of fortification invented by the defence necessity of the community, mixed with a church. Usually the church, built into the gothic style, have elements from the Burgundy Gothic , brought here by the Cistercian monks at the beginning of 1200. Elements of decoration like four or multiple leafs openings placed under roof, or the double windows, are everywhere.
The church nave have benches organized in two large groups: on the southern side boys and mans, on the northern side ladies and girls.
At the entransce of the childrens into the religious community the boys was staying on the southern lateral side along the wall in the last benches. They will advance to the front according with their age, so when they was ready to be married they was staying in the first benches along the southern wall of the church. The same rule was settled for the girls but on the northern side.
After marriage, boys and girls, now mans and womans, was moved on the central benches, each one keeping his side ( to the south mans to the north womans ). Also they was advancing with the age, so in the first benches from the centre was staying the oldest members of the community.
As a conclusion, here you can see in many places, like for exemple in to the downtown of my city, Brasov, a catholic church, 300 meters away an orthodox one and a little bit further an evangelic gothic Cathedral.an>